What is in the Eye?
The unique sense consists of the sight, hearing, taste, and smell. These senses are all located in the head and have connections with the brain. These senses enable you to detect and analyze sound, light, odor, and chemical signals in the environment.
The organs of vision are the eyes, and they are natural convex lens which refracts light. There are two eyes located in the bony sockets in front of the head of every man, the eye is spherical and held firmly in the socket by the extrinsic muscles of the eye. With the help of these muscles, the eye is able to move in various directions. This means that without the muscles’ activities in the eyes, the eye may not move as should.
The size of an adult man eye is approximately 24.4mm X 23.7mm X (22.0-24.8) mm with no differences from gender and age group. The eyeball size differs from is 21 mm to 27 mm.
These are parts of the eye; iris, lens, pupils, cornea, sclera, choroid, retina, macula, optic nerve, conjunctiva, optical disc, ciliary body, vitreous body, fovea, the anterior and posterior chamber.
The eye works like a photographic camera, meaning its function is similar to that of a photographic camera. And just like a camera, your eye has a lens system that helps it to focus light rays on a photo-receptor.
The unique color of your eye is determined by the amount of pigment called melanin stored in the front layers of the eye. Specific cells called melanocytes produce melanin, which is stored in a transcellular compartment called melanosomes.
An aperture (the pupil) through which light enters the interior of your eyes and whose size can be varied. The iris defines a person’s eye color while the photosensitive receptor (the retina) correspondent to the film of a camera.
The images on a camera film must be developed and printed on unique papers. Light impulses from the object viewed by the human eye are transduced into electrical impulses that journies through the optic nerve into the brain.
In the brain, the impulses go through a complex pathway until it reaches the visual cortex, where the impulses are translated into visual objects.
Defects of the Eye
The Human eye is a system for converting light rays into images. Eye defect is the impairment in the sense of sight. Here’s a list of the common eye defects;
This is otherwise known as nearsightedness; this eye defect makes your eye apprehend nearer object in sharp focus, but distant object appears blurred. The image is focused behind your retina. It can be corrected by wearing contact/glasses with concave lenses. These contacts or glasses help to focus the image on your retina.
This is also called farsightedness; it is the opposite of myopia. People with this eye problem can see far away objects clearly but find it difficult to see near objects. The image is fixated behind the retina instead of on it. Fortunately, it can be corrected by wearing glasses that contain convex lenses.
This eye defect occurs when your eye is not entirely rounded due to the shape of the cornea; this defect is when there is a lot of focus around your retina. It can be corrected by using a unique spherical, cylindrical lens.
This defect is an age-related condition as your lenses lose their power to change shape, in the sense of apprehending different distances. The eye drops its power of accommodation due to old age, and thus, the ciliary muscles also become weak. This could be corrected with the use of spectacles having convex lenses.
The Eye Disorders and Diseases
- The proptosis
- Age-related macular degeneration
- Color blindness
- Low vision
- Eye twitching
Proptosis is also known as bulging eye disease. This disorder occurs when one or both eye sockets protrudes because of the space-taking lesion. These lesions can be as a result of the growth of the muscles, fat, and tissue behind the eye.
Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)
This is affiliated with age, and it is the physical disturbance of the center of your retina called macula. It results in no vision in the center of the visual field.
This is color failures, sometimes called color deficiency of the eye. This is the inability of the eye to differentiate between certain shades of color. People affected by this disorder simply argue with other people about color matching.
Lens gradually become opaque, and vision mist is formed in the eye. This kind of eye disorder is a degenerative form of the ocular disease.
Sometimes called a crossed eye, when a person’s eyes are not able to align on the same point at the same time. They appear to be placed in the wrong position or pointed to different directions.
This occurs when there is a build of aqueous fluid in your eye, which creates pressure, causing damage to the optic nerve.
Whenever you make use of ordinary glasses or contact lenses and do not give you a clear vision, you have an eye disorder called low vision.
This is a type of inflammation inside your eye. This disorder affects some parts of your eye, especially the part that makes up the uvea. The uvea consists of the ciliary body, iris, choroid.
How to Take Care of Your Eye
Avoid Rubbing Your Eyes
Dirt, bacteria, and dust contaminate your hand, and your hand is exposed to it. It is advisable not to touch your eye to lower the risk of causing damage to your eye. Fortunately, if it is necessary to touch your eye, do it with a clean hand, wash your hand.
Maintain a Healthy Weight
It sounds almost impossible, but being overweight has a negative effect on your eye. When you are overweight, the risk of having a visual disorder is very high. It is best to keep your weight insight. Having a lot of weight leads to diabetes and can cause diabetic retinopathy or glaucoma.
Sunglasses prevent sun exposure to your eyes, causing damage to the eyes, such as cataract and age-related macular degeneration. Medically, it is recommended to wear sunglasses that break out 99 to 100 percent of the ultra-violet radiation.
Wear Protective Eyewear
Some activities warrant eye shield wear to prevent injury of your eyes like cut or dirt or dust. Activities like sport, working in jobs such as factories and construction companies, doing repairs or projects in your home.
Rest Your Eyes
If you are such a person that looks at the TV or computer screen more often, there are chances for eye strain. To avoid eye strain, try the 20-20-20 rule; every 20 minutes, look away about 20 feet in front of you for 20 seconds. Better still take a look away for 5 minutes and a nap afterward.
There is always smoke in every smoking. The smoke is dangerous and is capable of damaging your optic nerve.
Get Regular Exercise
Regular exercise burns out fat, which prevents and controls diabetes and high cholesterol. So, it is advisable to engage in the activity that keeps you fit more often.
Know Your Family Medical Record
Discover if there is any inherited visual disorder in your family, it makes the chance of having a visual problem at hand. With the knowledge of your family medical record, it lowers the risk.
Regular Eye Checks
Knowing the condition of your health is the best asset you could ever have. It will stop you from engaging in activities and behaviors that are harmful to your eyes.
Your eye is also compared to a system; it has a lot of functions it is doing. It is advantageous to take care of your eye so as to avoid being deprived of vision.