Cancer: Types, Stages, Prevention and Treatment

cancer awareness

Facts About Cancer

Cancer is an unusual and uncontrollable growth of fatal cells anywhere within the body. There are over 150 types of cancer. Cancer occurs when cells get damaged through abnormal growth and development and do not die but become infectious, divide, and spread within the body. Anything that makes the normal growth and development of a normal body cell become abnormal can result in cancer. Cancer involves damaged cells that refuse to die; they become toxic and develop into cancerous cells, affecting the organs in the body and eating deep into tissues of the body to cause more havoc. Some of the agents that make body cells develop abnormally may include toxic chemicals, human genetics, radiation, or pathogens. Cancer is identified by the body tissue it has infiltrated. For instance, cancer cells that develop in the breast are called breast cancer, while those in the blood is called blood cancer or leukemia. The alteration of the proper development and growth of cells is what causes cancer. When such cells do not die, they become cancerous cells.

Poorly developed cells that have developed into cancerous cells break away from the mass of other cells and transport themselves through the blood and settle on organs where they can continue their uncontrolled toxic growth.

When cancer cells divide themselves and fragments of them leave their original points and begin to affect other organs alongside their original infection point, it is known as metastasis spread. For example, if breast cancer cells move speedily to the bone, the process of the spread is known as metastasis, and the victim would be said to have metastasized breast cancer to bone. It is totally different when the cancer cells begin originally from the bone.

The following shows the prevalent cases of cancer among genders and age-grades;

  • Women; breast cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer
  • Men; prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and lung cancer
  • Children; leukemia or blood cancer, lymphoma and brain tumor

Cancer cases are determined by various factors such as age, race, gender, environmental factors, genetics, and diet. According to a major report by the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the cause of major deaths worldwide and is responsible for over 8.2 million deaths, with lung, liver, stomach, colon, and cancer topping the list. More research discovered that cases of cancer would hit 13.1 million by 2030, which is about a 70% increase.

Cancer treatment involves surgery, medications, radiation, and therapies. All of these methods help shrink the cancer cells and put a stop to the growth and development of such cells.



It begins with the skin tissues and other internal tissues and organs under the skin like the breasts, lung, colon, pancreases, and ovaries. This kind of cancer is called by the name of the organ or tissue it affects.


This kind of cancer affects the bone, cartilage, fat, blood vessels, muscles, or any other connective or supportive tissues. This sort of cancer is referred to as soft tissue or bone cancer.


This cancer affects the blood beginning with tissues that form blood like the bone marrow and injects toxic cancer cells into the blood.

Lymphoma and Myeloma

This kind of cancer affects the cells in the immune system.

Central Nervous System Cancer

Central nervous system cancer affects the brain and the and spinal cord. They begin with tumors and affect the nervous system while developing into cancerous cells.

Metastatic cancers are not included because they originate from the above-mentioned types of cancer.


The major cause of cancer is the damaging and abnormal growth and development of cells in the body. Asides from genetic factors, some other external factors have been discovered to be the cause of this damage.

Ionizing Radiation

These radiations include ultraviolet rays from the sun, alpha, gamma, and beta rays.


Some bacteria like Human Papillomavirus have poised to be possible cancer-causing agents.

Lifestyle Factors

Some lifestyle and habits like smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, and preserved foods or foods that contain additives have been found to cause some kinds of cancer.


Stage 0

This stage means there is no cancer in the body, but there are damaged cells that have the tendency of growing into cancer. This stage is called carcinoma in situ. At a stage, damaged tissues can be surgically removed.

Stage I

This is also known as early-stage cancer, and it occurs when the cancer is still very small and is in just one place. Here the cells have not started growing into other organs.

Stage II and III

This stage is a severe stage where cancer cells have grown bigger in size and into other organs.

Stage IV

At this very stage, the cancer cells have spread and affected organs that are close by into other organs. It can be called advanced or metastatic cancer.


painful menstrual cycleAbnormal bowel activities. In other words, malfunctioning of the bowels and bladder.

A frequent sore throat that does not heal

Weird discharge or bleeding from either the breast or other parts

Sores that take time to heal or do not heal at all

Growing lump in the testicles or breast

Difficult swallowing



Sudden hoarse voice and chronic cough

Other symptoms that might get you running to the hospital include;

Sudden loss of weight

Loss of appetite

Skin changes

Difficulty in breathing

Unexplained bruising

A different kind of a pain in the bones, joints, or any other part of the body that might be recurring or pains that refuse to go.

Persistent Fever

The frequent occurrence of infections that will not heal with usual treatment

Treatment Options

Cancer treatment depends on the type and stage of cancer. However, most cancer cases involve the following;

  • Surgery; cutting open the body and removing the cancer-infected tissue
  • Chemotherapy; usage of drugs to kill cancer cells
  • Radiation therapy; usage of powerful rays to kill cancer cells
  • Bone marrow transplant, which is also referred to as a stem cell transplant. Here, the infected bone marrow is replaced by either the victim’s bone marrow or a donor’s
  • Immunotherapy; is also known as biological therapy. This is when the immune system is used to fight the cancer cells. Sometimes the immune system does not recognize the cancerous cells; immunotherapy helps the immune system identify cancer cells as intruders and attack them.
  • Hormone therapy; hormonal cancers like breast and prostate cancers are fueled by those hormone-producing glands. This is why the breasts are cut off in most breast cancer cases.
  • Cryoablation; is the treatment of cancer with cold. This is usually done by inserting a long needle into the body and directing it straight to the cancer cell, and releasing a cold gas to shrink and kill the cancer cell.
  • Radiofrequency ablation; just like cryoablation, except for the cold part, radiofrequency ablation is done through the same process, but high-frequency heat energy is released on the cancer cells to kill them.
  • Clinical trials; involves using trial and error methods. In other words, it means using studies to investigate and try out new methods of treating cancer.
  • A combination of two, three, or more of these options
  • Victims whose cancer cannot be cured completely are treated with more than one of these treatment options.


  • Quit smoking. Smoking is associated with several kinds of cancer. Stopping now would reduce your risk.
  • Avoid excess exposure to direct sunlight, as direct contact with ultraviolet rays, can lead to cancer.
  • Adopt a healthy diet. Eat more fruits, vegetables, and fiber.
  • Engage yourself in physical activities at least 30 minutes per day.
  • Watch your weight as much as you watch what you eat.
  • Quit alcohol or drink in moderation if you must.
  • Once in a while, go to the hospital for cancer screening.
  • Speak with your doctor to know if there are cancer immunizations to help prevent you from suffering from cancer

Cancer Diet

a variety of fruitsEating right can assist your cancer treatments and can also be a perfect method for preventing cancer. Eating a balanced diet is highly advised as there is no specific diet that can help battle or prevent cancer, but sticking to a nutritious, balanced diet would help. Add more vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and fiber to your diet, and stay away from alcohol, salt, sugar, and caffeine.

In Conclusion,

Cancer occurs when damaged cells in the body refuse to die and grow into cancerous cells. They spread across tissues and organs in the body and develop into complications if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are best as there is over average survival chance.


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