Interesting Facts About Hormone
Most of the defect seen in people are not diseases, but it’s mostly caused by some poor hormonal circulation. The hormones might be low or high. Hormones in your body constitute the fair coordination of your body system. Most of these hormones allow or act as a backup for the succession of metabolic activities in your body cells. There are a whole lot of factors that contribute to these poor circulations. Some of this imbalance might be life-threatening or could lead to death but relax, it can be regulated and maintained. Be calm while I educate you on the hormones over-secretion and under-secretion together with the treatments.
These hormones have organs that secrete them. They are referred to as glands. Firstly, hormones are chemical substances that are found in one organ or part of the body and then carried in the blood to another organ or part where they exert functional effect depending on the specificity of their effects. This definition partly explains why the hormones alter the body’s functional activity or an organ’s structure.
This hormone is otherwise known as epinephrine hormone. It is secreted from the adrenal gland. You might have wondered why you get into more reflex action in times of emergency. This hormone function in-flight response by increasing your blood flow to the muscle. The output from your heart in the blood flow acts on the atrial sinus node, pupil dilation response, and blood sugar regulation.
The over-secretion of adrenaline is very common, which comes with some life-threatening symptoms. The few symptoms include rapid heartbeat, high blood pressure, cardiac arrest, anxiety, weight loss, excessive sweating, palpitation, obesity. Obstructive sleep is called apnoea which is mostly caused by difficulty in breathing. Medical disorder from adrenaline is mostly from adrenal gland tumors called pheochromocytoma or paragangliomas. You might inherit it from your parents, or its runs in the family.
The under-secretion of epinephrine is very unusual. It doesn’t come with medical unless it has gone beyond the limit. It is exceedingly rare. Adrenaline can be regulated, as I’ve told you earlier. Adrenaline Hormone can be regulated by inhaling or intravenously. The inhalation helps you control the symptoms of croup while the intravenous method (injection into a muscle or under the skin).
Parathyroid Hormone (Parathormone)
Parathyroid hormone has located in the neck. Its main function is to control the calcium level in your blood. Where you can actually see the work of parathormone is inside your bone, kidney, and intestine. Inside the bone, it stimulates the release of calcium from your large calcium stores in the bloodstream. It increases the chance of bone destruction while it reduces new bone formation. The kidney prevents excessive urine loss with the help of parathyroid hormone: it stimulates the production of vitamin D in your kidney. Your intestine absorbs calcium from the food you eat.
The over-secretion of parathormone is capable of causing hypercalcemia, known as primary hyperparathyroidism, while the rare condition is called tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The lesser quantity of parathyroid hormone in between the primary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism is called secondary hyperparathyroidism. While the under-secretion of parathyroid hormone is called hypoparathyroidism. Most of this deficiency of parathormone is caused by mostly vitamin D deficiency or kidney diseases.
Parathormone is regulated by the negative feedback mechanism of calcium levels in the blood. Here’s an analogy of how it works: low calcium levels in the blood increase the secretion from the parathyroid gland, while high calcium levels in the blood prevent your parathyroid gland from getting rid of parathormone.
This is secreted by the thyroid gland. The hormones use iodine extracted from food to produce two hormones: Triiodothyronine T3 and Thyroxine T4. The hypothalamus and the pituitary gland are located in and also controlled by the brain. The thyroid hormone is regulated by The Thyroid Releasing Hormone TRH. The TRH stimulates the pituitary gland to release Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH.
When your Thyroid hormone level is low, TRH and TSH are secreted to produce more hormones. When the thyroid hormone level is high, the thyroid gland secretes less TSH and TRH, which inhibit the production of Thyroid Hormone. The hormone has some metabolic functions it does which are necessary for your normal well-being. These functions include:
- Calorie regulation: weight gain or lose
- Replacement of dead body cells
- Control of your muscle contraction
- Increase and decrease of heartbeat
- It helps to coordinate the movement of food through your digestive tract.
The over-secretion and under-secretion of this hormone is the positive and negative side of its function, respectively.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
It is secreted by the pituitary gland underneath your brain. It is essential for reproduction: it regulates sexual development and functioning. The menstrual cycle and growth of eggs at the ovaries in females are powered by the FSH. During ovulation, FSH is produced at its highest level before the egg is produced. Also, in males, it is responsible for the production of sperm, but it doesn’t change very much.
In children, especially girls, it sends a signal directly to the ovaries for the production of estrogen, usually during puberty, and it also performs the same function in boys by sending a signal to the testes for the production of testosterone Hormone. FSH hormone works together with luteinizing hormone. The regulation of FSH is carried out by the Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone-GnRH.
Too much Follicle-stimulating hormone results in infertility, menstrual difficulties in women, low sex drive, and early or delayed puberty. In the case of under-secretion, it leads to hypogonadism: failure of the gonads.
It is also referred to as lutropin, an interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. It is produced by the pituitary gland. It plays quite a crucial role in the reproductive system. It is a gonadotropin hormone produced and released by cells in the anterior-posterior gland. It regulates testicular and ovarian function.
In men, the Leydig cells found in the testes are stimulated to produce testosterone. Testosterone is responsible for the general male characteristics in the body. An example is the enlargement of the larynx for a deep voice, increased muscle mass, growth of the facial hair and body hair.
In women, the two halves of the menstrual cycle are controlled by luteinizing hormone. It stimulates the ovarian follicle in the ovary to release female sex hormones. In the first stage of pregnancy LH is needed. Luteinizing hormone is regulated by the process called the hypothalamic-pituitary gland axis.
Over-secretion leads to infertility. Excessive LH in your bloodstream can lead to low sex steroid production from the testes or ovaries. It also has genetic implications called Klinefelter’s syndrome and Turner syndrome. Klinefelter’s syndrome causes the male reproductive system disorder by producing an extra X chromosome resulting in XXY chromosomes.
Under-secretion also results in infertility and Kallmamm’s syndrome: low gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion from the hypothalamus. It also results in delayed ovulation and menstrual cycle.
Oxytocin is a hormone produced from your pituitary gland upon receiving signals from the hypothalamus. It has two functions: it causes contraction of pregnancy. In other words, it helps the parturition reflex. During childbirth, the uterus contract with the stimulations of oxytocin, which push the fetus out of the womb. The cervix is lined with oxytocin receivers (receptor). It tends to expand. The second function of oxytocin is milk ejection by the breast. It plays an important in lactation. The milk passes through your alveoli into the duct of the breast, so its release is triggered by the suckling of babies. The suckling stimulates the nipple of the breast, which transmits signals to the oxytocin neurons.
The effect of over-secretion and under-secretion of oxytocin are likely the same. They both can cause the death of the fetus during childbirth due to factors like difficulty in uterus contraction and cervix enlargement. It can also cause low mill formation or no milk formation. Oxytocin can also be affected or altered by the use of contraceptive pills for family planning and also the act abortions. They both reduce the level of oxytocin in the uterus. An injection of oxytocin can be given. Before you use any contraceptive pills, carefully consult your doctor or any certified health practitioner.
Your pancreas plays a big role here. The function of insulin can never be underestimated in the body. Its neurons receive signals of high glucose or sugar concentration level in your blood. Insulin decreases the blood glucose level in various ways. Insulin causes rapid uptake and metabolism of glucose by your tissues and liver. Another means of glucose level reduction in the storage of glycogen. For instance, after a meal and your muscles are not exercised, this prompts the direct transportation of glucose into the cells of your muscle in abundance. Instead of this, the glucose is stored in the form of glycogen in the muscle. Your body cells require glucose for energy in carrying out their activities. That is why it is recommended to take in enough calories or glucose for sports.
Hyposecretion of insulin leads to hypoglycemia: low sugar level of the blood, which increases the plasma cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations which eventually leads to the development of atherosclerosis in people with severe diabetes. The hypersecretion causes hyperglycemia: high sugar level in the blood, which results in diabetes mellitus. If not treated, it will eventually graduate into a critical condition, advancing from diabetes into hypertension. Hyposecretion and hypersecretion can be treated medically by regulated consumption of glucose, adequate exercise, and regular checkups. An amount of insulin can be injected directly into your bloodstream.